Depression is the biggest predictor of substance abuse during pregnancy, according to new Canadian study of more than 25,000 expectant mothers.
The study showed women with depression were about two and a half times more likely to use marijuana, and twice as likely to smoke or drink alcohol while pregnant.
Researchers say depression was a bigger risk factor for substance abuse than education, income or age.
Changes in C-sections could decrease opioid use
New research suggests changes to improve C-section deliveries could decrease opioid use.
The Kaiser Permanente study looked at women who were a part of the “enhanced recovery after surgery” program.
The program focuses on using alternative pain methods and getting patients out of bed soon after surgery.
The women used fewer opioids without feeling more pain and were more alert and engaged in caring for their baby.
Out-of-network bills affecting more privately insured patients
More privately insured patients are getting hit with out-of-network bills, despite going to in-network hospitals.
Researchers studied six years worth of hospital records involving nearly 19 million patients who had all gone to in-network hospitals.
Overall, nearly 40 percent of all ER visits and 37 percent of all hospital admissions resulted with an out-of-network charge.
The cost of these unexpected charges has also gone up.
For ER visits, the average cost increased from over $200 to over $600, while for admissions it increased from $800 to over $2,000.